بِسْمِ اللّٰهِ الرَّحْمٰنِ الرَّحِيْمِ
“In the name of Allah the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful.”
If for some reason a person has missed their salaah, islaam has facilitated us with the chance to make up for them. This making up of missed salaahs is called Qadha Salaah (completing the missed).
Salaah is a Fardh and not forgiven. On the day of judgement Salaah will be the first thing that we will be questioned about. It is not sufficient to only make Tawbah (repent) for missing them.
One should make an effort to estimate the amount of salaahs they need to make up. To do this, one should calculate when they became Baaligh (mature). For girls this is when they start their menses & for boys upon having a wet dream (ejaculation). If either of these did not happen then they will become baaligh (mature) at the age of 14 solar years & 7 months (15 lunar years). One should also estimate how many salaahs they may have performed already or the ones that were missed in haidh (menstruation) & nifaas (bleeding after childbirth), & deduct that number from the total number of Salaahs missed since the age of Bulugh (maturity). One should stop performing their Qadha Salahs when they are certain that they have completed them all.
Method & Rulings
-The method of qadha salaah is the same as performing the 5 daily prayers, however qadha will only be made for the fardh & waajib (witr) salaahs. There is no qadah for sunnah & nafl salaahs.
-If however, one misses their fajr & they remember to make qadha on that same day before the time of zawwal, then they will make qadha of the 2 sunnahs of fajr along with the 2 fardh. If they make qadha after the time of zawwal, then they will only do qadha of the 2 fardh of fajr.
– If a person has made one salaah qadah, for e.g zuhr of today & he has no other qadah salaahs or the ones he had, he has made them up, then he should first perform the qadha salaah & then the ada salaah (salaah of that time). In this case he will have to do the qadha of Duhr first & then perform the Asr, otherwise the Asr of that day will not be valid & will have to be repeated after performing the qadha (missed) salaah.
-Similarly this rule will apply to someone who has missed 1-5 salaahs. He should first perform the 1-5 salaahs in order & then the ada salaah (salaah of that time). For e.g. Fatima missed Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib, Esha & Fajr of the following day. She should first make qadha of these in order & then perform the ada salaah (salaah of the time), which in this case will be Dhur Salaah, otherwise the Dhur salaah of that day will not be valid & will have to be repeated after performing the qadha (missed) salaahs. It is for this reason it is very important to tick off the qadha salaahs that have been completed so that one is aware of when this rule will start to apply
-If a person has missed more than 5 salaahs, then this rule of praying them in order will no longer apply.
-Similarly, if one forgets to perform or misses the witr prayer of esha, then they should first perform the witr qadha & then the fajr salaah.
-Due to three reasons it will be correct to perform Ada salaah (salaah of that time) before Qadha salaah (missed salaah):
- The time for ada salaah (salaah of that time) is becoming less & there is a fear it will also become qadha (missed).
- One forgets to pray the qadha salaahs.
- One has more than 5 qadha salaahs (missed salaahs). So 6,7 or a whole lifetime etc.
-Qadha salaah can be performed at all times except the makhrooh times which are sunrise, sunset & zawwal.
-If there is very less time for salaah, so less that if one performs their qadha salaah (missed salaah) first, then even the ada salaah (salaah of that time) will become qadah (missed), then in this situation one should perform the ada salaah (salaah of that time) first, so they are not sinful for making it qadha (missed).
-There is no qadha for the salaahs that are missed during the days of haidh (menstruation) & Nifaas (bleeding after childbirth).
– Nafl salaah is optional. Qadah (missed) salaahs are compulsory. Therefore one should perform their qadah (missed) salaahs instead of Nafl (salaahs).
– When performing qadha Salaah, it is necessary to make the intention of qadha salaah fixing the date & time of salaah. For e.g. ‘I am praying the fajr qadha of Monday 12th september 2020.’
-If however, a person does not know or remember the exact dates of their qadha salaahs, then they will make the intention each that time that I am performing the FIRST Fajr (for e.g.) of all the Fajrs that I have missed or of my umri qadha (missed prayers of my lifetime). They will not say second , third, fourth etc, as once this first Fajr has been performed, the second one will now become the first, therefore they will say first each time.